Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by a tiny burrowing mite called Sarcoptes scabiei. Intense itching occurs in the area where the mite burrows. The urge to scratch may be especially strong at night. Scabies and impetigo are common and important skin conditions which are often neglected in developing countries. Limited data have been published on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in Timor-Leste. Sequelae including cellulitis, bacteraemia, nephritis, acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease contribute significantly to the burden of disease. estimated 35% of children in rural areas are living with scabies, a study done by Paediatric Department, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Australia and Paediatric Department, Hospital Nacional Guido Valadares, Dili, Timor-Leste in October 2016. A standard questionnaire was used to record demographics, anthropometry and skin examination results. Impetigo and scabies were diagnosed based on clinical examination of exposed surfaces, and clinical photographs were reviewed for correlation by an infectious diseases paediatrician. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo were calculated and binary risk factor associations were described using relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression multivariate analysis. Continuous variables were analysed for associations using the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test.
The study enrolled 1396 students; median age 11 years (interquartile range (IQR) 9-15). The prevalence of scabies was 22.4% (95% CI 20.2-24.7%) and active impetigo 9.7% (95% CI 8.3-11.4%); 68.2% of students had evidence of either active or healed impetigo. Students in Ermera were more likely than those in Dili to have scabies (prevalence 32.0% vs 5.2%, aOR 8.1 (95% CI 5.2-12.4), p<0.01). There was no difference in the prevalence of active impetigo between urban and rural sites. More than a third of participants were moderately or severely underweight. Stunting was markedly more common in the rural district of Ermera.
Scabies and impetigo are common in Timor-Leste, with very high prevalence of scabies in the rural district of Ermera. Improvements in prevention and treatment are needed, with prioritised activities in the rural areas where prevalence is highest.
15-24 kg: 3 mg PO once
25-35 kg: 6 mg PO once
36-50 kg: 9 mg PO once
51-65 kg: 12 mg PO once
66-79 kg: 15 mg PO once
>80 kg: 200 mcg/kg PO once
Repeat the dosage in 2 weeks.
ivermectin costs $ 0.50 /6mg tab
2. Permethrin cream
Thoroughly massage ELIMITE™ (permethrin) 5% Cream into the skin from the head to the soles of the feet. Scabies rarely infests the scalp of adults, although the hairline, neck, temple, and forehead may be infested in infants and geriatric patients. Usually 30 grams is sufficient for an average adult. The cream should be removed by washing (shower or bath) after 8 to 14 hours. Infants should be treated on the scalp, temple, and forehead. ONE APPLICATION IS GENERALLY CURATIVE.
Patients may experience persistent pruritus after treatment. This is rarely a sign of treatment failure and is not an indication for retreatment. Demonstrable living mites after 14 days indicate that retreatment is necessary.
permetrin 5% Cream 30 g tube $ 4.00/tube